Despite the fact that talks are one of the most widely recognized techniques for information move in medication, their adequacy has been addressed. Aloof organizations, absence of pertinence and detachment from the understudy’s requirements are a portion of the contentions supporting this clear absence of viability. Nonetheless, many creators have recommended that applying grown-up learning standards (i.e., pertinence, harmoniousness with understudy’s requirements, intelligence, association with understudy’s past information and experience) to this technique increments advancing by addresses and the viability of talks. This paper presents proposals for applying grown-up learning standards during arranging, creation and improvement of talks to make them more successful. ซับไทย
Catchphrases: Dynamic Learning, Grown-up Learning, Talks
For quite a long time, addresses have been the most often involved technique for conveying information in scholastic educating. Addresses are utilized in different circumstances for showing hypothetical information in medication, going from homerooms for clinical understudies and occupants, to symposia, gatherings and congresses for proceeding with clinical education.1 Talks have numerous advantages:2,3,4 information can be instructed all the while to countless understudies; they are modest (in their most fundamental structure they just require a study hall, seats and a teacher); and they can be adjusted to any crowd and subject. In the possession of a talented educator, addresses consider the introduction of troublesome points, diminish the equivocalness of disputable themes and can be utilized to provoke understudies’ curiosity in the topic, as well as proposition them the teacher’s viewpoint and experience.
Addresses have ended up being essentially as successful as other showing techniques for conveying information and information.5,6 In any case, the viability of talks has been questioned.1,7,8,9 A talk’s detached nature,1 the absence of clear goals and coordinated structure, the unimportance of points, their separation from an understudy’s genuine practice, the absence of enunciation among new and past information and the work expected to keep up with attention,10,11 are a portion of the components that challenge advancing by this strategy.
Regardless of these difficulties addresses are still among the foundations of scholarly educating. Many creators have prescribed the consideration of systems to make them more effective1,6,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22 – from more dynamic understudy contribution to minor departure from the actual talk. These procedures would permit a development from static, uninvolved organizations (in which understudies sit for an hour just to pay attention to what the educator needs to tell) more unique and intuitive configurations, permitting more understudy support and association in their own learning. A satisfactory educational plan for consolidating texts and pictures in general media helps would likewise be important to make these more successful for learning.6,11,23,24,25,26,27,28
This article will introduce an outline of grown-up learning standards and how they ought to direct the plan, content and organization of talks. Also, it will give suggestions for making coordinated, pertinent, intelligent and successful talks.
Grown-up learning standards
Since, Eduard C. Lindeman’s trailblazer paper in 1926, The Importance of Grown-up Schooling, which stirred interest in and set the reason for the efficient examination about how grown-ups learn, teachers and clinicians have added to the improvement of many shifted speculations and theory about the learning qualities of grown-ups. Taylor and Hamdy summed up the learning speculations and grouped them in the accompanying categories:29
Instrumental learning speculations – these attention on the student’s singular experience
Conduct learning hypotheses – Improvements in the climate can create changes in conduct
Mental learning hypotheses – Learning is centered around mental and mental cycles, discernment and handling of data not in conduct
Experiential learning – Learning is centered around the improvement of capabilities and abilities in a particular setting
Humanistic hypotheses – Fixated on the student, these speculations center around a singular’s true capacity for self-completion, self-bearing and inner inspiration
Andragogy – The clarification of grown-ups’ inspiration and demeanor to learning.
Independent learning – The idea that understudies can plan, direct and survey their own learning30
Extraordinary learning hypothesis – Investigates how basic reflection can be utilized to challenge a student’s convictions and presumptions
Social speculations of learning – These require the “two vital” components of setting and local area. They incorporate mental arranged speculations that consider learning and thinking as friendly exercises occurring locally and impacted by context3
Inspirational models – These accentuate the worth of interior inspiration and reflection as vital for learning
Intelligent models – These hold that reflection loans to change. Intelligent learning31 and conscious practice32,33 hypotheses are instances of these models.
As shown by this grouping, the hypotheses are various. Components from every one of them might be applied to make sense of how grown-ups learn; albeit not a solitary one of them is finished all alone (every one of them have limitations).29,30,34
Beneath we give a few models on how these speculations apply to the planning and improvement of talks.
During the 1970s, Malcolm S. Knowles fostered a model to make sense of the qualities of learning in grown-ups situated in the accompanying assumptions:4,35
The need to learn Grown-ups need to know why they need to learn something prior to undertaking to learn it. They need to realize how learning will be directed, what realizing will happen and why learning is significant. The educational ramifications of this supposition that will be that:
It is critical to be aware and figure out the student’s assumptions and requirements through needs appraisals (an assessment of what the student has to be familiar with the topic, performed preceding the showing mediation by asking educators and additionally understudies). These consider suitable preparation, to stay away from the misstep of showing content so fundamental that understudies definitely know it (the talk is seen as an exercise in futility) or so troublesome that they track down it difficult to comprehend (they come up short on information base to figure out the substance) or they find it unessential to their requirements
It is key to present objectives and targets toward the start of the talk – what students will actually want to be aware or do with the information procured during the talk
It is great practice to introduce a diagram toward the start of the talk to provide the students with a see of what they will realize.